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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 28 / 102

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Jeynes’ (2007) meta-analysis of 52 parental involvement studies was centered on

urban secondary school children, and “the results indicate that the influence of parental

involvement overall is significant for secondary school children…and the positive effects

of parental involvement hold for both White and minority children” (p.82). Similar to the

overall definition of parental involvement offered by Hill and Tyson, Jeynes’ meta-

analysis first employs a very loose definition to parental involvement, e.g., “for the

purposes of this study, parental involvement was defined as parental participation in the

educational processes and experiences of their children” (p.83). Because Jeynes is also

the author of the original study which is being replicated here, it comes as no surprise that

many of the variables selected for analysis in the 52 studies are similar to variables used

in his original 2005 study. Those variables are: parents attendance and participation at

school functions, parents’ discussing school activities with their children, parents’

checking up on and helping with homework. The remainder of variables evaluated in

Jeynes’ meta-analysis are: an overall measure of general parental involvement, a unique,

specific measure of parental involvement, parents’ expectations for children’s

performance, and parenting style (p.89).

While Jeynes’(2007) conclusion that “parental involvement is associated with higher

student achievement outcomes” (p.90) is technically true, it is worth noting that Jeynes

separated the studies into two groups — those that included “sophisticated controls” and

those that did not (p.88). In Jeynes’ meta-analysis, the measure of parents discussing

school events with students is re-named communication, and the results indicate that

communication with students yielded coefficients of .32, p<.05 for overall academic

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