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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 29 / 102

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achievement, and .30, p<.01 for standardized tests when no sophisticated control

variables were included in the statistical procedure. When sophisticated controls were

included in the procedure, the coefficients for the effect of communication on overall

academic achievement dropped to .15, and the coefficient for the effect of

communication on standardized tests dropped to .14. Controls for SES, race, gender, or

previous achievement reduced these coefficients by half which is noteworthy, but it is

also important to realize the reduced coefficients were not statistically significant, and

therefore communication likely has no effect on academic achievement (p.95).

Socioeconomic Status — SES

In the Jeynes (2005) study being replicated here, SES is made up of five different

variables including, mother’s education, father’s education, father’s occupation, mother’s

occupation, and family income (p.105). Even though this particular construct of SES is

relatively common, it is important to develop a basic appreciation of the numerous factors

that are often overlooked in many evaluations of SES. A brief discussion of a few

examples of the less common factors that make up SES in other studies will also

illuminate the difficulties which arise in making comparisons between studies with

heterogeneous variable constructs.

Two other studies, Crane (1996) and Attewell and Battle (1999) operationalized a

longer list of variables to comprise SES, but there were several common components.

Crane conducted an evaluation of the relationship between students’ home environment,

SES, maternal test scores and academic achievement as measured by mathematics scores.

Although Crane’s study is somewhat different than Attewell and Battle insofar as it

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