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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 31 / 102

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district, percentage of adults in the district with at least a bachelor’s degree, and the

percentage of children who qualify for free or reduced price school lunches as measures

of SES. Results of the Toutkoushian and Curtis study indicate that SES did affect student

performance; however, “The SES factors did not account for approximately 40% of the

variation in student outcomes across high schools” (p.268).

A variation on neighborhood SES is noted in an important meta-analysis conducted

by Sirin (2005) in which he states, “Neighborhood SES, on the other hand, is usually

measured as the proportion of neighborhood/county residents at least 20 years old who,

according to the census data, have not completed high school” (p.419). According to

Sirin, “school SES is usually measured on the basis of the proportion of students at each

school who are eligible for reduced-price or free lunch programs at school during the

school year” (p.419). Results of Sirin’s meta-analysis indicated a “medium to strong

SES–achievement relation […] contingent upon school level, minority status, and school

location” (p.417).

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