preoccupied to participate in school programs prevents establishing the necessary two-
way communication between the school officials and parents (pp.97-8).
Briefly mentioned above, one study designed to distinguish gender differences
related to academic achievement and parental involvement, Muller (1998) utilized
parental involvement variables similar to those used in the study being replicated here.
Jeynes’ (2005) discussion variable “was based on the extent to which a child discussed
events at school with his or her parents” (p.104). In Muller’s study “All the students
reported how frequently they discussed school activities or what they studied in class”
(p.340). In both Muller and Jeynes, the parental involvement variable included measures
of how often parents attended school meetings or school events. Muller further defined
this parental interaction by commenting, “A school meeting, in which school policy and
programs are discussed, is more likely to be formal, whereas school events may have a
more social or extracurricular content” (p.340).
In Muller’s (1998) study, the discussion of descriptive statistics provides some
insight as to the differential effect of parental involvement on boys’ and girls’ academic
achievement. The study revealed that girls discussed school with parents more frequently
than did the boys, and although boys talked about school programs more with their
fathers, both groups talked more with their mothers than their fathers. Drawing from her
own earlier research, Muller (1995) indicated that fathers’ discussions of high school
with sons may be due to a need to intervene regarding disciplinary issues, or it may be
that fathers simply take more interest in shaping their son’s lives. According to Muller,