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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 36 / 102

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parents followed stereotypical norms and restricted their daughter’s activities away from

school more than boys. However, the parents of 10th grade boys attended school meetings

more often perhaps to gather information or help set school policies, in contrast to their

attending school events in support of their 8th grade daughters (1998:343-44). For 8th

grade boys, the regression results are statistically significant at the p<.001 level,

controlling only for student grades and educational expectations, indicating that boys

scored slightly higher test scores than girls, and when several other measures of parental

involvement were included in the regression, the boys’ test scores increased slightly, in

relation to girls’ scores (Muller 1998:344-45).

Urban, Suburban, and Rural Settings

While many studies have researched whether or not there is any academic benefit

associated with where the student lives, Jeynes (2007) is the first meta-study published in

an academic journal, which centers on the relationship between parental involvement and

academic achievement of on urban adolescents (p.83.). According to Jeynes meta-study,

researchers including Bauch and Goldring (1995) have argued that parental involvement

may be of greater importance to students situated in urban areas because of “high family

dissolution rates, numerous two-parent working families, and unique sociological

pressures on children” (2007:82-3). While both these studies address the importance of

parental involvement as it relates to urban locales, the current research seeks to address

the distinction between the effect of parental involvement in different school settings–

urban, suburban, and rural.

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