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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 37 / 102

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As mentioned above, the consensus of studies in Jeynes (2007) meta-analysis finds

ample evidence that academic achievement and parental involvement are positively

correlated for urban students. In one study that focused on a school-community

partnership model for school renewal, Bauch (2001) states that “Urban schools, to which

much of the research on current reform efforts has been directed, are not rural schools

writ large” (p.204). Rural students, according to Bauch, “face many challenges in gaining

a sound education, but one of the advantages they have is that their schools are set in a

community context that values a sense of place and offers a unique set of conditions for

building the social capital important for helping students succeed in school” (p.204-05).

While urban and rural students each face a different set of challenges, one study by Keith

et al. (1996) suggests that “rural school attendance does not affect either parental

involvement or change in achievement, and that parental involvement has the same

effects on the achievement of students in rural schools as in urban or suburban schools”

(p.55).

In another study designed to evaluate achievement differentials between rural,

suburban, and urban schools, Fan and Chen (1999) evaluated students ranging from 8th

grade to 12th grade and “found that rural students performed as well as, if not better than

their peers in metropolitan schools” (p.31). Using similar outcome variables to the Jeynes

(2005) study, Fan and Chen evaluated reading, math, science, and social studies,

controlling for SES in all analyses (p.34). The Fan and Chen study noted very small

differences in academic achievement across locales, but “differences among ethnic

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