31

causality because it is representative of Math scores for 12^{th }graders in spring 2004. One

limitation of the original study was evidenced in the use of the family structure data

collected in the same time frame (1992) as the academic achievement data. A similar

limitation occurs in the current research because data for only one outcome variable had

been released at the time this study was initiated. In this replication, family structure and

all parental involvement variables were taken from the 2002 data set, and the main

achievement measure, the standardized Math score, was selected from the first follow-up

data collected in 2004. The ELS 2002/04 Electronic Codebook offers a description of the

main achievement variable which is similar to the description of the other dependent

variables:

The F1 Math standardized T score provides a norm-referenced measurement of achievement, that is, an estimate of achievement relative to the population (spring 2004 12th graders) as a whole. It provides information on status compared with peers (as distinguished from the IRT-estimated number-right score which represents status with respect to achievement on a particular criterion set of test items). Although the T score is reported for all F1 in- school responding students (including transfer students), regardless of grade level, the comparison group for standardizing is the 12th grade population. The standardized T score is a transformation of the IRT theta (ability) estimate, and has a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10 for the weighted subset of 12th graders in the sample.

# Independent Measures

Generally, socioeconomic status (SES) is comprised of income, parental education

levels, and parental occupation (Battle 2004; Attewell 1999; Balli 1997). This replication

will utilize an SES quartile variable with quartile weights based on the distribution of the

composite SES variable. The original composite SES variable is based on mother’s

education, father’s education, mother’s occupation, father’s occupation and combined