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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 50 / 102

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concept of academic achievement as being endogenous (arising from within) the student.

This at least provides some basis for understanding the complicated nature of the

relationship between the variables, but also the concept that external forces such as SES

and parental involvement can be associated with influencing internal processes study

habits which could be associated with higher or lower academic achievement.

Although Allison (1999), Baron and Kenney (1986), and Frankfort-Nachmias and

Leon-Guerrero (2002) have all provided information which informs any understanding of

the complications arising in the analysis of inter-related independent variables, the fact

remains that SES and parental involvement both have some effect on academic

achievement. Owing to the explanations offered by these researchers and the

understanding that SES quite probably affects academic achievement whether or not it is

included in the regression model, this research will not include a “non-SES” regression

model. In this context, such a model is misspecified. Instead, the model used will focus

on parental involvement as the independent variable — controlling for SES in the

analysis.

As mentioned above, family structure and parental involvement are often thought of

as separate variables, but because there is often a very close interrelation between the two

variables, the strength of either variables’ individual influence on academic achievement

can be difficult to measure. In fact, many of the same arguments listed above to describe

the difficulty in isolating the effects of SES and parental involvement, also apply to the

difficulty in isolating the effects of family structure and parental involvement. For

example, when biological parents’ are separated or divorced, family SES and the parents’

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