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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 52 / 102

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As mentioned above, this research will also address and attempt to rectify an

additional weakness in Jeynes original study. According to Jeynes (2005):

In order to address the issue of causality, the three parental involvement measures were taken from the 1990 (tenth grade) data set, the academic measures were taken from the 1992 (twelfth grade) data set, and the family structure variable was taken from the 1992 (twelfth grade) data set. This study uses an array of parental involvement measures and distinguishes between each of them to an extent that conclusions can be made regarding which aspects of parental involvement are most helpful to adolescents. (P. 104)

Because Jeynes used the family structure variable from the 1992 (twelfth grade) data

set, it would have very limited value or causality as it relates to the academic

achievement variables taken from the same year. To address the issue of cause and effect,

it is important to demonstrate that activity which constitutes the independent variable, i.e.

parental involvement, occurs in the correct time-ordered sequence relative to the activity

which constitutes the dependent variable, i.e. academic achievement. In this research,

data which represents the independent or “cause” variables was collected two years prior

to collecting the data which represents the dependent or “effect” standardized math score

variable. Specifically, the present research will include family structure variables taken

from the base year (2002) and at least one academic achievement variable available in the

first follow-up in 2004.

The current study will also include an analysis of the effect of school location on

academic achievement. School location can be related to issues of SES and race/ethnicity

as well as issues raised by especially large or sparse student populations. According to

the codebook documentation, “Urbanicity of school locale as indicated in the source data

for sampling: the Common Core of Data (CCD) 1999-2000 and the Private School

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