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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 53 / 102

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Survey (PSS) 1999-2000.” […] “taken from the school file and replicated across each

student belonging to that school” (ELS 2002: 60). By including a base year variable

based on the locale of the school, this study will add to the knowledge base of factors that

may or may not affect academic achievement. School locations are coded as: urban,

suburban, or rural, and two dummy variables will be created by recoding those original

categories with the reference category represented by suburban school locations (Rural =

1; Urban = 1).

The remaining independent variables are designed to measure the effect of direct

parental involvement in scholastic activities. The second parental involvement variable

measures three aspects of parental involvement as it relates to parents checking up on

their children’s scholastic activities and relationships. These components include: the

extent to which parents help 10th graders with school projects or homework, how often

they check that homework is completed, and whether or not the parents know their

children’s closest friends. The regression variable is an index variable created by

combining three separate variables included in the ELS2002 data set. The component of

this variable that measures whether or not parents help with homework is an individual

response choice included in a question designed to capture information about a several

aspects of parental oversight of their child’s day-to-day scholastic activities. The question

is posed, “How often do your parents do the following?” and response choices include:

check on whether you have done your homework, help you with your homework, give

you privileges as a reward for good grades, limit privileges because of poor grades,

require you to do work or chores, limit the amount of time watching TV/playing video

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