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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 54 / 102

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games, and limit the amount of time going out with friends on school nights. The second

aspect of this variable concerns the frequency with which parents check up on whether or

not their child has completed his or her homework. This variable is also an individual

response choice in a single question designed to elicit information on their child’s

scholastic activities. The original question stem is: “How often do you....” followed by

response choices which include: check that your 10th grader has completed all homework,

discuss your tenth grader’s report card with him / her, know where your tenth grader is

when he / she is not at home or in school, or make and enforce curfews for your tenth

grader on school nights. The final aspect of the parents checking up variable involves

whether or not the parents know their children’s first, second, and third closest friend.

Because there are three questions regarding the same issue, an index variable will be

created to combine the three components that constitute the variable that measures

parents’ checking up on their children’s activities; that index variable will recoded to

create a dummy variable coded YES=1.

The third parental involvement variable is another multi-part variable derived from a

single question stem which asks, “In the first semester or term of this school year, how

often have you discussed the following with either or both of your parents or guardians?”

The individual response choices are: selecting courses or programs as school, school

activities or events of particular interest to you, things you’ve studied in class, your

grades, transferring to another school, plans and preparation for ACT or SAT tests, going

to college, and community, national and world events. As with the other multi-part

variables, these variables will be recoded as index variables individually and then

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