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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 55 / 102

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combined in a single index variable. The last parental involvement variable looks at the

ways parents are involved in extra-curricular events at their children’s schools. Similar to

the first three independent variables, this question exists in the original questionnaire as a

single stem with several individual response choices all designed to gather information

about the parent’s involvement in various school-related social and group activities. The

survey question, “In this school year, do you or your spouse/partner do any of the

following?” is followed by: belong to the school’s parent-teacher organization, attend

meetings of the parent-teacher organization, take part in the activities of the parent-

teacher organization, act as a volunteer at the school, and belong to any other

organization with several parents from your tenth grader’s school (for example,

neighborhood or religious organizations). In keeping with the original study, this

regression variable will be created by recoding the original questions and then creating an

index variable from those recoded original variables. Students with parents that were

involved in the above activities will be coded YES=1.

Demographic Variables

Race/ethnicity is also included in the data set as a composite, represented by the

variable name RACE = “Student’s race/ethnicity-composite,” and includes the following

categories: American Indian / Alaska Native, non-Hispanic, Asian, Hawaii / Pacific

Islander, non-Hispanic, Black or African American, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, no race

specified, Hispanic, race specified, Multiracial, non-Hispanic, White, non-Hispanic. This

variable will be a series of dummy variables for Asian, Black, Hispanic, and Native

American with White as the reference category coded: White=0 (N = 15,362).

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