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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 56 / 102

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The variable that measures student gender is also a composite, and this variable is

also a dummy variable which will be used to assess the effect of one group as it relates to

the other non-selected group. In this case female = 1 will be referenced against male = 0.

(N = 15,362).

The Regression Model

Because this is a replication of an earlier study, the calculation will consist of a linear

regression (OLS) which will provide regression coefficients to compare student

achievement between students whose parents are more involved in their academic

activities and students whose parents are less involved. Because different types of

parental involvement appear to affect academic achievement in different ways, the study

will compare the effect of the different types of parental involvement. For example, in the

original study, regression coefficients for two parental involvement variables, family

structure and parents’ discussing school activities with their children, were larger and

statistically significant relative to parents’ checking up on their children’s friends and

homework and parents’ attendance at school activities.

This study will make one significant departure from the original research conducted

by Jeynes (2005). Although the original study model included one regression described

as “non-SES” which was compared to another “SES” model, this research will be based

on a regression equation that includes SES as a control variable. All hypotheses are based

on a model which includes SES as a control variable. The main reason for the elimination

of the “non-SES” model is simply a re-evaluation of the original study itself. While

Jeynes’ observation that “the addition of the SES variables lowers the absolute values for

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