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# PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 59 / 102

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set. While the mean scores are statistically significantly different, this is primarily due to

the large sample sizes as the absolute magnitude of the mean differences is rather small.

# For example, in the original study, the intact family unadjusted mean score for the math

variable was 53.46, and the unadjusted mean reading score was 52.68. The mean score

for the math variable is 1.17 points lower in the new data set, and an independent samples

t-test indicates that the difference is significant and not due to random chance. The math

variable in the original study (M = 53.46, SD = 9.65) differed significantly (t = 11.35,

p < .000). The mean score for the reading variable is .7 lower than the original reading

variable (M = 52.68, SD = 9.56), and the difference is also significantly different

(t = 6.78, p <.000).

In the past ten years, means and standard deviations produced by the two data sets

haven’t changed all that much, and comparisons within each data set between intact

families and those parents who are divorced is also very similar. In the present study, the

unadjusted mean math score for children from intact families is 7.82 points higher than

the unadjusted mean for students from families in which the parent or parents never

married. Ten years earlier, in Jeynes’ original study, the mean math score for children

from intact families was 8.32 points higher than the mean math score for children from

families where the parents never married. For the math variable, the difference in

unadjusted mean scores between children from intact families and children whose parents

were never married in the new study is .5 points lower than the difference in unadjusted

mean scores between children from intact families and children whose parents were never

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