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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 64 / 102

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53

Socioeconomic Status — SES

Although the standardized regression coefficients are smaller in the present study

than those in the original Jeynes study, by a wide margin, SES still yields the highest

regression coefficients, ranging from B = .38 (p < .001) in the 4th quartile for the

combined reading/math variable to a low of B = .08 (p < .001) for 1st wave follow-up

math scores for students in the 2nd quartile. As a reminder it is worthwhile to note the

SES variable in this study is a composite score based on respondent-supplied 1989

NORC / General Social Survey (GSS) occupational prestige scores, family income and

parental education. In general terms, an increase in SES, relative to the lowest SES

quartile is associated with increased academic achievement as measured by the outcome

variables included in the regression model. The other SES coefficients for the 1st wave

follow-up math scores were B = .14 (p < .001) in the 3rd SES quartile and B = .24

(p < .001) in the 4th SES quartile, compared to reference category which is the lowest SES

quartile.

While the SES variable still yields the largest coefficients for all dependent variables

in the regression, the coefficients are much smaller than the coefficients in Jeynes’

original model. For example, 4th SES quartile standardized coefficients for the reading

and math variables are both B = .35 (p < .001) in the current study, compared to 4th SES

quartile coefficients of B = .95 (p < .001) for the reading variable and B =1.06 (p< .001)

for the math variable in the original study. In the current study, the coefficient for math

scores in the 3rd quartile is B = .18 (p < .001) compared to a 3rd quartile coefficient for

math of B = .54 (p < .001) in the original study. In the new study, the 3rd quartile

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