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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 68 / 102

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68 / 102

57

Hispanic

-4.42***

-4.56***

-4.80***

-4.97***

Black

-5.33***

-6.24***

-6.18***

-5.95***

Native American

-4.13***

-4.22***

-4.46***

-4.26**

Gender

1.19***

-1.26***

-.03

-.95

Rural

-.15

-.36

-.27

-.33

Urban

.56***

.002

.30

-.37

R2 for Model

.25

.26

.29

.14

coefficients for Blacks are B = -.18 (p < .001) for reading; B = -.16 (p < .001) for the

Intercept

45.09

46.88

45.71

31.30

PI1-Family Structure

.47**

.83***

.69***

2.46***

Missing

-.41

1.18***

.41

1.82***

PI2-Checking-Up

-.71***

-.96***

-.89***

.40

PI3-Discussion

3.56***

3.05***

3.53***

5.15

PI4-Attendance

.93***

.86***

.96***

3.24***

SES Quartile 2

2.50***

2.45***

2.64***

4.41***

SES Quartile 3

4.40***

4.24***

4.61***

7.53***

SES Quartile 4

7.82***

7.73***

8.30***

12.42***

Asian

-1.65***

1.89***

.13

4.18***

for the composite math/reading variable. In the new study, the standardized regression

Table 3. Effects (Unstandardized) for Parental Involvement in the Education of Their Adolescents for Twelfth Graders in the ELS 2002 – 2004 Data Set N=15,362

Academic Measure

Reading

Math

Composit

e

1st Wave Matha

(p < .001) for reading scores; B = -.51 (p < .001) for math scores; and B = -.52 (p < .001)

dummy variable created for Blacks produced a standardized coefficient of B = -.47

than was demonstrated in the original study. For example, in the original study, the

statistically significant, but the standardized coefficients indicate a smaller negative effect

coefficients created with data from the ELS002-2004 are predominantly negative and

For the set of demographic variables used in this study, standardized regression

* ** p < .05; a N=15,325

Demographics

p < .01;

***

p < .001

math variable; and B = -.21 (p < .001). For the Black variable, the standardized

coefficient for the 1st wave follow-up math score is B = -.09 (p < .001). The group

defined as Native American also had negative, statistically significant coefficients for all

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