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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 69 / 102

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achievement variables, relative to the reference category of Euro-Americans.

Standardized coefficients ranged from B= -.02 (p < .01) for the 1st wave follow-up math

score to B = -.04 (p < .001) each for the math, reading, and combined math/reading

scores. These contrast sharply with the coefficients produced in the first study. Jeynes’

regression coefficients were B = -.34 (p < .001) for reading scores and B = -.36 (p < .001)

for the combined math/reading score. Again, it is important to note that the coefficients

produced in the current study are weak, but they are statistically significant and markedly

improved over the coefficients in the original study. Standardized coefficients for the

group identified as Hispanic remained relatively constant over the last ten years. In the

new study, the Hispanic variable produced coefficients for reading and math variables of

B = -.16 (p < .001); and for the combined reading/math variable scores, a coefficient of

B = -.17 (p < .001). The coefficient for the Hispanic category on the 1st wave follow-up

math score is B = -.07 (p < .001). In the original study, the coefficient for math scores

was B = -.24 (p < .001), and the coefficient for the combined math/reading score was B =

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    .23 (p < 001). On the other hand, for the group identified as Asian, standardized

coefficients are predominantly significant and weaker in the current research than they

were in Jeynes’ original study. In the original study, the coefficient on the math score was

B = .26 (p < .001), and the coefficient for the reading variable was B = .06, but not

statistically significant. In the current study, the coefficient for math scores is B = .06

(p < .001), and the coefficient for the composite reading score is B = -.05 (p < .001).

In the new study, the category for race demonstrates some of the biggest changes in

comparison to the coefficients for race in the original study. While the coefficients for

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