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PARENTAL INVOLVMENT, FAMILY STRUCTURE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT - page 70 / 102

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Blacks in the new study are negative and statistically significant, the difference, relative

to Euro-Americans, is reduced by more than half for the reading and math variables, and

reduced by approximately 80 percent for the combined math/reading variable. For Native

Americans, the results of the new study also indicate that the achievement gap may be

closing. The differential between Native Americans and Euro-Americans is reduced by

approximately 80 percent for the reading and math scores and reduced by over 90 percent

for the combined math/reading variable. For the Hispanic group, the coefficients in the

new study indicate that the differential between Whites and Hispanics is also reduced, but

by a smaller margin than the reductions in the differential between Blacks and Whites or

Native Americans and Whites. For the reading variable, Hispanics scored, relative to the

White reference group, approximately 16 percent better than in the original Jeynes study

and approximately 30 percent better than the reference group for the math variable. For

the Asian group the results indicate that the achievement gap may be growing. Relative to

Euro-Americans, scores on the reading variable were 77 percent lower than in the

original study, and the combined math/reading score was approximately 71 percent

lower.

Turning to gender, a comparison between the original study and the current research

produced mixed results. In both studies, the variable for females produced standardized

coefficients for math of B = -.06 (p < .001). The coefficient for reading is B = .06

(p < .001) in the newer study, which is considerably lower than the coefficient for reading

in the original B = .23 (p < .001). The coefficient for reading in the new study is .17

standard deviations lower than the coefficient for reading in the original study,

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