Experiment 3, participants’ use of base rate information was once again moderated by its consistency, but this effect was itself moderated by the diagnosticity of the base rate information. These studies demonstrate that base rate usage can be an adaptive response to environmental contingencies.
Towards a balanced social psychology
David Funder University of California, Riverside, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Social psychology is remarkable for its negativity, in both its behavioral and cognitive research. Behavioral social psychology has emphasized bad behaviors such as obedience to malevolent authority
psychology, taking study of judgment,
its cue from the mainstream emphasizes the errors people
make. This focuses on Obviously --
emphasis is misguided because it outcomes rather than processes. to a Brunswikian -- the same process
can and probably will lead to both good outcomes depending upon circumstances.
and bad Joachim
issue and related matters. You can see it at http://www.psych.ucr.edu/faculty/funder/rap/bbs.pdf Comments welcome.
Assessing Clinical Decisions of Medical Students
Bob Galbraith, Tim Siftar, Tony LaDuca and Steve Clyman (National Board of Medical Examiners, Philadelphia, PA) E-mail: RGalbraith@NBME.org
We are investigating the use of Clinical Judgment Analysis (CJA) together with other approaches to assess decision making around diagnosis and management in third year (M3) medical students during their pediatric clerkship. A project with Pediatric Clerkship Directors from 15-20 schools in the US is being implemented with advice from Tom Stewart, Tom Tape and Paul Sorum. The first step will be to agree upon 8-12 clinical tasks and to accumulate 50 or more actual cases for each. Testing is projected to start in July 2003, and will be accomplished online using a web-based application that provides both analysis (accuracy, cue utilization etc.) and either cognitive or outcome feedback. The study design should allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of CJA for formative as well as summative assessment among medical students.
Applying real-time cognitive feedback in a dental diagnosis task
Gordon Gattie and Ann Bisantz University at Buffalo, The State University of New York E-mail: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org
Our research examined the effect of ecological predictability and cognitive feedback component on a diagnosis task. We developed a software program requiring participants to make 50 medical judgments of oral diseases, based on an abbreviated case history, color photograph, and cognitive feedback updated after every trial. Therefore, not all cues were explicitly provided to
Thirty-six experts-in-training, mostly
dental students from the University at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine, and 36 medically nave participants completed the experiment. Ecological predictability levels were relatively high and low. CFB consisted of the appropriate Lens Model
ecological predictability task information condition)
standardized cue weights. presented numerically.
All values were
We found that the Lens Model could be successfully applied to an environment with ill- defined cues, as the experts-in-training performed significantly better than their novice counterparts. In addition, participants in the high ecological
predictability higher than
performed the low
predictability condition. more consistent in their policies than novices.
Experts-in-training were applying their judgment
As with receiving CFB
previous CFB studies, scored higher than
receiving outcome feedback. discovered that novices scored
However, we higher when
receiving cognitive information instead of task information. This results suggests that as people make the transition from novice to expert, they shift
from relying on following actual
their own decision policies to cue weights determined by the
Our results also of all participant
that the initially
increased next step
in the latter half of the experiment. Our is providing participants with different
CFB indices graphically.
Newsletter 2002 page 10 of 28