administered to sixty surgeons. When it came to prioritising the vignettes rather than allowing the surgeons to see the assigned level of each cue we allowed then to subjectively interpret the cue level using a Visual Analogue Scale (0-50mm) for each cue. They also determined their global judgement of priority using a VAS (0-100mm).
We then undertook multiple regression on an idiographic basis using the global judgement of priority as the dependent variable and the seven cues as independent variables. We then performed cluster analysis of the individual surgeons to determine if there were any different philosophical groupings to how the criteria were used. This revealed two groups. We also undertook a nomothetic analysis to determine how the global functioning of such a method of priority scoring might be applied to our specific situation.
philosophical groupings of cue use we are interested to see if we can develop consensus between these two groups. As such we are undertaking a second round of the sixty surgeons assessment of priority of the vignettes. We would like to use feedback/feedforward using the information derived from the first round.
Secondly we are undertaking a cross- validation of the approach using real patients in a clinical setting. As an extension of this we would like to perform real time feedback to surgeons in the use of the criteria/cues. This would be a monthly meeting to feedback to the policy of individual surgeons in our institution.
Coherence and Correspondence in an Automated Flight deck
Kathleen L Mosier San Fransisco State University E-mail: email@example.com
This year we have been focusing on the concepts of coherence and correspondence as they define and impact decision-making in the automated cockpit. In a preliminary study, Cathy Jacobson did as her master's thesis an analysis of ASRS (Aviation Safety Reporting System) reports. Data from voluntary incident reports were gathered to examine pilots' use of coherence- and correspondence-based decision-making processes as a function of phase of flight, weather conditions, type of event, and level of aircraft automation. Data were analyzed using Chi Square statistical tests. The findings suggest that
pilots' use of either a correspondence-based decision
constraints present, namely event type, weather conditions, and phase of flight.
A second study, which we will be conducting on an internet-based platform, focuses on regional airlines and flight decks common to their operations, as this is where we think we may be able to make the most impact regarding
identify current practices regarding the information toward coherence in decision
use of making,
and the process.
impact of We are
operational factors on tracking pilot diagnosis
operational indication of automated), sources are
variables: a) source of the initial a problem (that is, automated vs non- b) whether or not all information consistent with a particular diagnosis
(that is, congruence vs information), and c) time
Pilots will respond to a series of scenarios that vary in source of initial information, consistency of information sources, and time pressure, by accessing relevant information until
they can make a diagnosis and come to a about what to do. The scenarios reflect the most common problems cited in
decision some of incident
reports as involving a search. For
discussed above, as well as others degree of ambiguity and information each scenario, they will be given one
that indicates a
(e.g., for a
tracked so that we can look at
variables. Pilots will also be asked to level of confidence they have in their
report the diagnoses
and decisions. Results of the study will enable to identify effects of the independent variables coherent decision processes.
Based on previously discussed work on coherence in automation use and automation bias, it is hypothesized that when pilots see automated information or warnings prior to other information, they will conduct a less thorough and complete information search for diagnosis and decision making than when the initial information comes from a non-automated source. They will also be
less likely available
to identify and information
resolve inconsistencies in
information comes Time pressure is
from a non-automated source. expected to exacerbate the
tendency to rely heavily on automated at the expense of coherence.
Newsletter 2002 page 19 of 28