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administered to sixty surgeons. When it came to prioritising the vignettes rather than allowing the surgeons to see the assigned level of each cue we allowed then to subjectively interpret the cue level using a Visual Analogue Scale (0-50mm) for each cue. They also determined their global judgement of priority using a VAS (0-100mm).

We then undertook multiple regression on an idiographic basis using the global judgement of priority as the dependent variable and the seven cues as independent variables. We then performed cluster analysis of the individual surgeons to determine if there were any different philosophical groupings to how the criteria were used. This revealed two groups. We also undertook a nomothetic analysis to determine how the global functioning of such a method of priority scoring might be applied to our specific situation.

Future work

Given

that

there

were

two

different

philosophical groupings of cue use we are interested to see if we can develop consensus between these two groups. As such we are undertaking a second round of the sixty surgeons assessment of priority of the vignettes. We would like to use feedback/feedforward using the information derived from the first round.

Secondly we are undertaking a cross- validation of the approach using real patients in a clinical setting. As an extension of this we would like to perform real time feedback to surgeons in the use of the criteria/cues. This would be a monthly meeting to feedback to the policy of individual surgeons in our institution.

Coherence and Correspondence in an Automated Flight deck

Kathleen L Mosier San Fransisco State University E-mail: kmosier@sfsu.edu

This year we have been focusing on the concepts of coherence and correspondence as they define and impact decision-making in the automated cockpit. In a preliminary study, Cathy Jacobson did as her master's thesis an analysis of ASRS (Aviation Safety Reporting System) reports. Data from voluntary incident reports were gathered to examine pilots' use of coherence- and correspondence-based decision-making processes as a function of phase of flight, weather conditions, type of event, and level of aircraft automation. Data were analyzed using Chi Square statistical tests. The findings suggest that

pilots' use of either a correspondence-based decision

coherence- strategy

or is

dependent

on

the

situational

conditions

and

constraints present, namely event type, weather conditions, and phase of flight.

A second study, which we will be conducting on an internet-based platform, focuses on regional airlines and flight decks common to their operations, as this is where we think we may be able to make the most impact regarding

automation

use.

The

intent

of

this

study

is

to

identify current practices regarding the information toward coherence in decision

use of making,

and the process.

impact of We are

operational factors on tracking pilot diagnosis

this and

decision making

problems

as

a

strategies function

for

different

types of

of

three

important

operational indication of automated), sources are

variables: a) source of the initial a problem (that is, automated vs non- b) whether or not all information consistent with a particular diagnosis

or

decision

of

available

(that is, congruence vs information), and c) time

inconsistency pressure.

Pilots will respond to a series of scenarios that vary in source of initial information, consistency of information sources, and time pressure, by accessing relevant information until

they can make a diagnosis and come to a about what to do. The scenarios reflect the most common problems cited in

decision some of incident

reports as involving a search. For

discussed above, as well as others degree of ambiguity and information each scenario, they will be given one

initial

piece of

information

that indicates a

problem,

and

will be

asked to

access other

relevant

information

by

clicking on

the

instrument or

information

icon

(e.g., for a

flight

manual). The

order and

type

of

information

accessed

will

be

tracked so that we can look at

information search

patterns

as

a

function

of

the

independent

variables. Pilots will also be asked to level of confidence they have in their

report the diagnoses

and decisions. Results of the study will enable to identify effects of the independent variables coherent decision processes.

us on

Based on previously discussed work on coherence in automation use and automation bias, it is hypothesized that when pilots see automated information or warnings prior to other information, they will conduct a less thorough and complete information search for diagnosis and decision making than when the initial information comes from a non-automated source. They will also be

less likely available

to identify and information

resolve inconsistencies in

than

when

the

initial

information comes Time pressure is

from a non-automated source. expected to exacerbate the

tendency to rely heavily on automated at the expense of coherence.

information

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