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very

interesting

connection

with

result

emotional

in

cognitive

disorders

is

biases

in

the

fact

that

high anxiety people show a processing bias (on the attention process) when faced with threatening content information, whereas normal anxiety people do not show this bias. To arrive at this conclusion the usual task is to compare the effect provoked by a prior stimulus (prime) on the objective (target), and the attention bias is inferred comparing the stimulation with threatening content (i.e. images or words that trigger anxiety) with a neutral stimulation. Throughout the years, research in this field has introduced the stimulation in a standard way, using a design with neutral covariation between the probe and threat stimuli; that is to say, all the stimuli

combinations appearance in

have

the

same

the experimental task.

probability

of

However,

this

kind

of

design

is

weak,

as

it

does

not

consider

a

very

important validity of

side, which has to do with the ecological the cues. Given my interest on the lens-

model Brunswik approach, I have my time to designing a hybrid

devoted most of task that allows

considering

the

cues

validity

within

the

experimental

context

of

attention

biases

(i.e.

priming

tasks).

The

experiments

we

have

carried

out

using

this

hybrid

task

show

the

relevance

of

the

ecological

validity

in

two ways. When

there is

a very

high relation

between the cues

and the

objective

stimulus, the

results of

the attention

bias are

there is a

null relation.

Besides,

different than when the processing bias

has to before

do with the biological preparation that comes the differences between anxious and non-

anxious people. could be able

In fact, we think that this approach to explain the fact that some

researchers have found the bias, while others did

a very weak

magnitude

not even find

it.

in

Decisions to Prescribe Estrogen Replacement Therapy

Michael Ravitch Northwestern University E-mail: ravitch@northwestern.edu

Together with Arthur Elstein, David Rovner, Margaret Holmes-Rovner, Gerald Holzman, and Marilyn Rothert we conducted a variety of studies

regarding physicians’ estrogen replacement

judgements and decisions in therapy. We used vignettes

to

represent

to

represent

the

various

combinations

of the design hot flashes.

  • -

    cancer risk, fracture

These studies were

risk, severity carried out

of at

Michigan PI.

State

University

-

Arthur

Elstein

was

the

Rapid Clinical Decision in Context: A theoretical framework to understand physician decision-making

Joshua H Sarver, Neal V Dawson, Susan W Hinze, Rita K Cydulka, Robert S Wigton, Said A Ibrahim, David W Baker Case Western Reserve University, Ohio. E-mail: sarver@po.cwru.edu

The purpose of this paper is to draw on previous work in multiple disciplines to establish a theoretical framework for clinical decision-making that incorporates non-medical factors, such as race, into the way physicians may make decisions in the real world practice of medicine. The proposed Rapid Clinical Decision in Context (RCDC) model attempts to understand the influence of various contextual elements on

physicians'

decision-making

process.

A

thorough

review

of

the

available

literature

provides

ample

support for the

RCDC

use of multiple

fallible

model. In brief, indicators leads

physicians' to errors in

judgment.

The

use

of

a

recognition-primed

decision-making

strategy

means

that

physicians

are likely to rely on their initial impression of patient. When physicians and patients interact,

the the

interaction

often

fails

to

alter

physicians'

initial

impressions arising from

because of communication difficulties social differences between physicians

and patients,

such as cultural

capital and

predispositions.

Understanding

real-world

physician decision-making has broad healthcare implications from addressing racial/ethnic disparities in treatment to medical education.

Operators’ Judgment Performance with Automated Decision Aids: A theoretical model and empirical investigation

Younho Seong yseong@ncat.edu, Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, North Carolina A&T State University, NC

Ann M. Bisantz bisantz@eng.buffalo.edu, Department of Industrial Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY

In an effort to model the human operators’ judgment performance with automated decision aids (ADA), the Lens model with its extension was used. However, the Lens model designs including n-system and hierarchical system design were not suitable to model the environment. The major reason is that a model of human operator with automated decision aid needs to reflect the situation where the operator is provided the “raw” or sensed information along with an estimate from an ADA. Here, an ADA receives the same

Newsletter 2002 page 22 of 28

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