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Athanasou cont.

Background Hager and Halliday (2002) argued that judgement is central to learning and that interests, purposes as well as features of a situation affect the judgement processes. The starting point for their model is the relationship between factors in a situation and judgements. As expected, the judgements are based on personally relevant features of a situation and in this aspect the model has major similarities to the field of research instigated by Brunswik on the importance of perception and judgement for all human responding. Hager and Halliday (2002) also hypothesised that judgements remain contextually sensitive to implicit and explicit features of a situation. They laid out a general plan but did not specify how these features interacted.

Research plan Individuals will be exposed to situations in which firstly there is a single, identifiably correct solution and separately to an everyday situation where there is a subjectively preferred or personally optimal answer. If the theory proposed by Halliday and Hager (2002) is correct then people will repond to both implicit and explicit features of the situation in lawful but idiosyncratic ways.

The independent variables in this research are the cues (explicit and implicit) and the dependent variables are the lens model parameters

(such as knowledge).




In this study three judgement situations that involve learning along a continuum of objectivity of outcome will be examined. The first relates to job choice (where there is no clearly identified correct answer but there are personal and subjectively optimal answers); the second situation relates to the correct medical diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE - the clinical features of SLE

are protean mononucleosis,

and may lymphoma,


mimic other

infectious systemic

disease). and the third situation is based upon spatial judgements involving shape analysis (where there is one correct answer). This project will be undertaken jointly by James Athanasou and Paul Hager.

References Hager, P. & Halliday, J. (2002). The importance of context and judgement in learning. In B Haynes (Ed.), Proceedings of the 30 Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia. Churchlands: Edith Cowan University, pp. 15-30. Athanasou, J,A. (in press). The role of contextual factors in judgements: Implications for research into adult learning. Australian Vocational Education Review. th

The Root of Error: Unreliability as a Response to Task Environments

Christopher J. Anderson and Thomas R. Stewart E-mail: ca4809@albany.edu

In the past year, we have begun a new program of research that aims to expand our understanding of the causes of judgment error, in particular, the crucial and often overlooked role of human unreliability. We developed a theoretical framework based in the lens model that shows how reliability and consistency are related and how they contribute to reductions in achievement and potential increases in conditional bias. We have also conducted a meta-analysis demonstrating that task predictability is one source of inconsistency. This added inconsistency mediates a decline in relative achievement in low predictability environments. Thus, the environment produces error not just by setting a ceiling on accuracy, but also via its psychological effect on the judge. Finally, we conducted a series of six experiments that aimed to determine the variables that influence reliability, and in turn observed the effect these changes had on other judgment parameters such as relative achievement, bias, matching, and consistency. Generally, we have found that complexity led judges to be less reliable, which contributed to a notable decrease in accuracy in more complex environments. On the other hand, some very simple and inexpensive interventions were able to boost reliability significantly and thus increase accuracy. The work thus far suggests that investigating reliability provides an important window on judgment error. Our work also provides a foundation for more developed theories regarding the mechanisms that produce judgment reliability.

Human-Automated Judgment Learning: A Methodology to Investigate Human Interaction

with Automated Judges

Ellen J. Bass ejb4n@virginia.edu


in interpersonal



interpersonal learning (IPL) have applied judgment analysis concepts and techniques in order to examine conflict between different judges working on the same task (Hammond, Wilkins, & Todd, 1966; Earle, 1973; Hammond, 1973). IPL consists of both an experimental process and a set of measures that investigate how one learns from the environment and another person as well as how one learns about another's judgment policy. Instead of studying how a person interacts with





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