representation. This move, especially that of Juliette Mitchell and Jacqueline Rose into Lacanian psychoanalysis, was not uncontested, for example by Parveen Adams in m/f, but from it rose a curious hybrid of literary and cultural studies. Lovell suggests that the convergence of textual with socio-historical analysis made cultural studies a natural habitat for feminist theory and this converges with Benhabib’s description of the ‘cultural turn’.
Cultural studies has a tendency towards eclecticism and humanist and economist readings of Marx were replaced by an interest in ‘marxian’ theorists such as Gramsci, Althusser, Lacan, Barthes and Foucault. At the time one of the most important questions seemed to be whether or not a socialist history could incorporate an historicised notion of human subjectivity. Those, such as Cora Kaplan warned that unless semioticians and psychoanalytic theorists retained their materialist and class analyses they would end up producing no more than ‘an anti-humanist avant-garde version of romance’. Thus, the critique of the subject, the idea that apparent unified subject identity is actually a consequence of antecedent linguistic and psycho-sexual processes, led to a series of arguments about the nature of psychoanalysis. Marxism and psychoanalysis share three basic characteristics. They present themselves as scientific and materialist, they question the viability of the idea of value free scientific method and they are interested in the socialised human subject. However, although Marxism and psychoanalysis are concerned with processes of change, conflict and resolution, there is fundamental disagreement as to the nature of the processes in question. Those influenced by psychoanalytic theory argued that Marxists socialised structures which caused conflict and aggression and that their explanations of commodity fetishism and ideology were profoundly one dimensional. Marxists argued that psychoanalysis fetishised subjectivity, naturalised human motivation and posited invariant and universal psychic structures. In effect, Marxists argued that psychoanalysis was an individualised response to the misery of alienation and that the abstraction of the experience of alienation from its context resulted in a theory of individual reconciliation to the status quo. It is an interesting to speculate what would