recognise not only one but multiple locations, not only one but polyvalent causes of oppression, acknowledge the universalising racist tendencies of feminist thought, and account for the fact that individuals are subsumed under universals. Critical thought of positionality, of the local, can resist the seductive closure of identification and point out to the mechanisms that impose sameness on similarity, similarity on difference, but can only do so if it is externalist; if it unpacks ontology and epistemology.
The global nature of developing capital raises further questions which third wave feminists must, through their own logic, address, and to do so they need to reclaim their feminist history. Is there a general trend towards downward economic mobility or is there a global feminisation of poverty? Is there necessarily a feminisation of labour or is there a tendency towards homogeneity? Is the family a legal and ideological unit or / and is it a place of resistance? What is the connection between child poverty and family structures? What is the impact of multinationals in local economies? Is the labour market fragmented (according to race and gender) and is this incorporated into, perhaps created by, the efficient extraction of surplus? How do we understand the move into, and war fought over, the Middle East? Do questions of sexuality rise to the fore when gender relations are unsettled? How do we make visible, understand, and respond and fund our response to child abuse, domestic violence, date rape, rape, snuff movies.
* Here Charter for Women: UN figures: Closure of Women’s Studies departments
Questions abandoned, rather than resolved, not only by second wave feminists but by Marxists, socialists and the New Left.
Heywood and Drake assess the global context of the third wave of feminism as transnational capital, downsizing, privitisation, a shift to the service economy, general downward economic mobility, and technoculture; all of which corresponds to a new form of feminist anti-capital, local, anarchic activism. In their attempt to navigate the fact that there are few alternatives outside the production / consumption cycle of global commodification, third wavers critically engage with,