metaphor. I am going to briefly point us back to radical feminism, to remind us why it was thought imperative to solve the problem of conceiving intersections between economic and sex-based exploitation.
The second wave of feminists recognised that women had never been simply excluded from the social contract. Modern social structures, it was agreed, managed to include women in the political order in such a way that formal demands could be met without the substantial changes that liberal feminists thought would necessarily follow. Influenced by American feminist theorists, such as Friedan, Millett and Firestone, radical feminists began to analyse the family, sexuality and forms of cultural representations. They concluded that the political gains of the first wave had been quite empty because traditional structures and values had been left in place and it was these very structures which defined the roles of men and women and gave femininity and masculinity different values: where the feminine is Other, dominated, oppressed and exploited by men. Patriarchy was defined as a set of social relations between men, which have a material base, and which though hierarchical, establish or create interdependence and solidarity among men that enable them to dominate women.
Radical feminism is characteristically concerned with the differences between men and women, differences in power and authority as well as different dispositions and characteristics. The ‘problem with no name’, the ‘women’s question’, unwrapped as a number of issues; rape, domestic violence, pornography, low pay, division of labour, domestic labour, child abuse, social and political exclusions and the connection between all these and sexualised representations. Essentialists and anti-essentialist agreed that the liberal political slogan ‘equal but different’ obviously mystifies the base fact that masculinity is valued over femininity and men guaranteed sanctioned domination over women. The structures themselves would need to be revised and revised according to different values. Some argued that the appropriate values were those associated with femininity. Others argued that characteristics associated with femininity