employment in terms of labour participation rates and employment per worker12. Both indices are higher among programme participants than among the target group population in the control area. Also, self-employment per worker is much
higher and, conversely, wage employment participants than among non-participants. Thus place of wage employment among participants.
is lower among programme self-employment has taken the This study also found that the
impact of programmes extends to in the supply of labour hours to
non-participants in wage employment
the area as well. Reduction by programme participants
creates an upward pressure on wages. level of wage employment in two non-participating households and it has
A higher wage rate has influenced the ways: it has attracted labour from induced replacement of hired labour by
among all groups credit programme employment.
of households. Rahman and Khandker has contributed to a net increase in
The increase in self-employment in the rural labour force at the national level is reflected in labour force survey data (Table 4). Between 1983/84 and 1999/2000,
the self-employment share increased both for males and females, but the increase was larger in the case of male labour. On the other hand, the employee share declined substantially in the case of female labour while remaining almost the same for male labour. A noteworthy gender-based difference is observed with respect to unpaid worker employment. Whereas the share of unpaid workers among male labourers declined during the decade of the 1990s after an increase in
1999/2000 the largest Therefore while it can a positive shift from
number of rural women were working as unpaid be said that the rural female employment situation employee to self-employment status, there is
workers. has seen a larger
increase of employment differences in the shift of stated above, the number
as unpaid workers. In addition, there are discernible employment status between male and female labour. As of self-employed males has increased on a larger scale
Employment per worker is calculated in terms of working hours per month.