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employment in terms of labour participation rates and employment per worker12. Both indices are higher among programme participants than among the target group population in the control area. Also, self-employment per worker is much

higher and, conversely, wage employment participants than among non-participants. Thus place of wage employment among participants.

is lower among programme self-employment has taken the This study also found that the

impact of programmes extends to in the supply of labour hours to

non-participants in wage employment

the area as well. Reduction by programme participants

creates an upward pressure on wages. level of wage employment in two non-participating households and it has

A higher wage rate has influenced the ways: it has attracted labour from induced replacement of hired labour by

one’s

own

labour.

Thus,

programme

placement

induces

an

increase

in

labour

use

among all groups credit programme employment.

of households. Rahman and Khandker has contributed to a net increase in

found that

the micro

the level

of overall

The increase in self-employment in the rural labour force at the national level is reflected in labour force survey data (Table 4). Between 1983/84 and 1999/2000,

the self-employment share increased both for males and females, but the increase was larger in the case of male labour. On the other hand, the employee share declined substantially in the case of female labour while remaining almost the same for male labour. A noteworthy gender-based difference is observed with respect to unpaid worker employment. Whereas the share of unpaid workers among male labourers declined during the decade of the 1990s after an increase in

the

preceding

period,

that

of

female

labour

has

continuously

expanded.

In

1999/2000 the largest Therefore while it can a positive shift from

number of rural women were working as unpaid be said that the rural female employment situation employee to self-employment status, there is

workers. has seen a larger

increase of employment differences in the shift of stated above, the number

as unpaid workers. In addition, there are discernible employment status between male and female labour. As of self-employed males has increased on a larger scale

12

Employment per worker is calculated in terms of working hours per month.

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