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than that of females, and the information in the table suggests that the incremental change in male self-employment results from shifts from the employer and unpaid labourer groups. Although these tendencies need further in-depth investigation to elucidate the implications, the limitations of micro-credit in employment creation should be noted.

Employee

9.8

51.6

11.1

13.8

11.4

14.1

Day labourer

30.9

17.3

23.5

14.8

29.1

19.7

Unpaid worker

17.7

13.2

25.4

37.8

9.2

40.8

Other

0.4

0.3

0.4

1.8

-

-

All statuses

100

100

100

100

100

100

Employer

43.4

17.5

20.9

9.1

0.2

0.1

Self-employed

18.5

22.8

50.1

25.2

1983/84

1990/91

1999/2000

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male Female

Table 4.

Employment status in rural areas (10 years

Note: Figures may not add up to 100 due to rounding. Source: LFS 1983/84; 1990/91; 1999/2000

and above)

Another noteworthy limitation of households from the programmes.

micro-credit is the exclusion of the poorest The failure of micro-credit programmes to

reach the poorest has become an issue of concern in recent years (Wood and Sharif 1997; R. I. Rahman 2000; Rahman and Razzaque 2000). Inclusion of non-target or non-poor households, generally defined in terms of land-holding size, is said to be on the rise. Between 27and 71 percent of new members of various credit programmes in Bangladesh are found to come from non-target groups (R. I. Rahman 2000: 50-51). The large-scale inclusion of non-target households in recent years is in stark contrast to the situation reflected in a 1985 survey which found that only 4.2 percent of Grameen Bank members belonged to

non-target groups (Hossain 1988: 44).

And exclusion of the poorest has become

a rather general phenomenon (Hulme and Mosley 1997).

of

micro-credit

schemes

in

other

countries

as

well

  • -

    69 -

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