average household (Hamid 1995: 180). The degree of access to micro-credit for female-headed households with few active males has not been substantiated
through surveys, but our general understanding of the situation female-headed household would suggest their under-representation
It is an undeniable fact that many poor women have
of the among to seek
some means other than micro-credit to alleviate their poverty.
3. RMG Industry as a Source of Alternative Income for Women
Men who can not find a viable source of income frequently resort to migration to
This is not such an easy option for women, however.
different consequences. countries and regions,
There are reflecting
diversities in migration patterns in diverse macro as well as micro
structural forces along males in the migration
with individual agencies.14 Although a preponderance of stream prevails in most of the world, some countries such
as the Philippines and dominance, especially in has been reported that
those of Latin America have demonstrated female
migration to independent
South Asia it is still rare.
According to Chant and are caused by the lack
Radcliffe (1992: 4-7), the differences in female migration of employment opportunities in low-wage industry and
service sectors in towns and cultural prohibit any independent movement of
Thandani and Todaro (1984:50-51) give five key variables to account for
female migration in income and average engaged or actively
first, the differential between expected urban
rural income, searching for
second, probability of marriage to work in the modern sector, third,
a male relative
the strength of sex-role constraints on lastly, all other residual factors, such contacts.
any kind of as distance,
spatial mobility for women and amenities and extended family