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average household (Hamid 1995: 180). The degree of access to micro-credit for female-headed households with few active males has not been substantiated

through surveys, but our general understanding of the situation female-headed household would suggest their under-representation

micro-credit clients.

It is an undeniable fact that many poor women have

of the among to seek

some means other than micro-credit to alleviate their poverty.

3. RMG Industry as a Source of Alternative Income for Women

Men who can not find a viable source of income frequently resort to migration to

urban centres.

This is not such an easy option for women, however.

Migration

is

a

highly

gender-differentiated

population

movement.

There

are

differentiated

responses

based

on

gender towards

individual

factors

concerned

with

migration,

entailing different

different consequences. countries and regions,

There are reflecting

diversities in migration patterns in diverse macro as well as micro

structural forces along males in the migration

with individual agencies.14 Although a preponderance of stream prevails in most of the world, some countries such

as the Philippines and dominance, especially in has been reported that

those of Latin America have demonstrated female

migration to independent

urban areas.

Conversely, in

female

migration

to

towns

South Asia it is still rare.

According to Chant and are caused by the lack

Radcliffe (1992: 4-7), the differences in female migration of employment opportunities in low-wage industry and

service sectors in towns and cultural prohibit any independent movement of

barriers women.

such

as

female

seclusion

which

14

Thandani and Todaro (1984:50-51) give five key variables to account for

female migration in income and average engaged or actively

general:

first, the differential between expected urban

rural income, searching for

second, probability of marriage to work in the modern sector, third,

a male relative

probability

of

marriage

to

a

male

in

an

urban

as

opposed

to

a

rural

area,

fourth,

the strength of sex-role constraints on lastly, all other residual factors, such contacts.

any kind of as distance,

spatial mobility for women and amenities and extended family

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