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node dissections for testicular tumours;

  • during antidepressant therapy.

Often, no cause for retrograde ejaculation can be found. The diagnosis is based on the medical history and labora- tory microscopic assessment of the post-ejaculate urine. Retrograde ejaculation should also be suspected if the ejaculate volume is very low (partial retrograde ejaculation). Treatment of retrograde ejaculation is basically aimed at removing the cause of the disorder or harvesting spermato- zoa from the urine after orgasm.

Anejaculation can be treated by vibrostimulation or electro- ejaculation techniques. It is possible to induce ejaculation in around 90% of patients with spinal cord injuries. However, the semen quality is often poor with a low number of motile spermatozoa. This accounts for the disappointing results of assisted reproduction techniques, such as intrauterine insem- ination, in patients with spinal cord injuries. In-vitro fertilisa- tion and ICSI are often required.

This short booklet text is based on the more comprehensive EAU guidelines (978-90-79754-70-0), available to all members of the European Association of Urology at their website, http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/ online-guidelines/.

Male Infertility 169

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