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Table 2: Lower reference limits (5th centiles and their 95% confidence intervals) for semen characteristics (WHO Manual for Semen Analysis, 5th edn, 2010)

Parameter Semen volume (mL)

Lower reference limit 1.5 (1.4-1.7)

Total sperm number (106 per

39 (33-46)

ejaculate)

Sperm concentration (106 per mL)

15 (12-16)

Total motility (Progressive an Non-progressive, %) Progressive motility (%) Vitality (live spermatozoa, %)

d

40 (38-42)

32 (31-34) 58 (55-63)

Sperm morphology (normal forms, 4 (3.0-4.0) %) Other consensus threshold values pH Peroxidase-positive leukocytes (106 per mL) MAR test (motile spermatozoa with bound particles, %) Immunobead test (motile sperma- tozoa with bound beads, %) Seminal zinc (μmol/ejaculate) Seminal fructose (μmol/ejaculate) Seminal neutral glucosidase (mU/ ejaculate) > 7.2 < 1.0 < 50 < 50 > 2.4 > 13 > 20

Male Infertility 159

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