ducts caused by a midline prostatic cyst or stenosis of the ejaculatory ducts.
Testicular biopsy Testicular biopsy is mainly performed as part of a therapeuti- cal process in non-obstructive azoospermic patients (testicu- lar sperm retrieval) who decide to undergo ICSI. It is advised that tissue that contains spermatozoa is cryopreserved for future ICSI attempts. Indications for performing a diagnostic testicular biopsy in infertile patients are limited to patients with azoospermia in the presence of a normal testicular volume and normal FSH levels. The biopsy is aimed at dif- ferentiating between testicular insufficiency and obstruction of the male genital tract. It is advised that tissue that contains spermatozoa is cryopreserved for future ICSI attempts.
Pathological classifications are:
absence of seminiferous tubules (tubular sclerosis);
presence of Sertoli cells only (Sertoli cell only syndrome);
maturation arrest – spermatogenesis arrested at different stages (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, or spermatides);
hypospermatogenesis – all cell types up to spermatozoa are present, but there is a distinct decline in the number of reproducing spermatogonia.
Carcinoma in situ of the testis can be found, especially in men with risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours (male infertility, cryptorchidism, history of a testicular tumour, atrophy of the testis) and microcalcifications in the testes.