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Electron Transfers

Nitrification

Denitrification

(Oxidation)

(Reduction)

Compound

N Oxidation State

Compound

N Oxidation State

NH È 3 Â -2e-

-3

HONH2

-1

È

 -4e-

HONO

+3

2 N Ç N 2 O Ç NO Ç NO2

-

0 ¿ +1e- (for each N) +1 ¿ +1e- +2 ¿ +1e- +3

È

 -2e-

HONO2

+5

Ç NO3

-

¿ +2e-

+5

Nitrification is the Achilles’ Heel of Wastewater Treatment

Wagner and Loy (2002)

Nitrification is the cost-controlling and performance-limiting process for most WWTPs.

Therefore, we need to understand this process thoroughly in order to achieve the highest level of performance in the most cost effective manner.

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