Notes to the Financial Statements (cont’d)
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (cont’d)
Significant Accounting Policies (cont’d)
Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The cost of inventories is based on the first-in first-out principle and includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories and bringing them to their existing location and condition. In the case of work-in-progress and manufactured inventories, cost includes an appropriate share of production overheads based on normal operating capacity. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
Receivables are initially recognised at their cost when the contractual right to receive cash or another
financial asset from another entity is established.
Subsequent to initial recognition, receivables are stated at cost less allowance for doubtful debts.
Receivables are not held for the purpose of trading.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand, balances and deposits with banks and highly liquid investments which have an insignificant risk of changes in value. For the purpose of the cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents are presented net of bank overdrafts and pledged deposits.
Non-current Assets Held for Sale
Non-current assets (or disposal groups comprising assets and liabilities) that are expected to be recovered primarily through sale rather than through continuing use are classified as held for sale. Immediately before classification as held for sale, the assets (or components of a disposal group) are remeasured in accordance with the Group’s accounting policies. Thereafter, generally the assets (or disposal group) are measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less cost to sell. Any impairment loss on a disposal group first is allocated to goodwill, and then to remaining assets and liabilities on pro rata basis, except that no loss is allocated to inventories and financial assets which continue to be measured in accordance with the Group’s accounting policies. Impairment losses on initial classification as held for sale and subsequent gains or losses on remeasurement are recognised in the income statements. Gains are not recognised in excess of any cumulative impairment loss.
Impairment of Assets
The carrying amounts of assets except for inventories, non-current assets (or disposal groups) classified as held for sale and financial assets (other than investments in subsidiaries and associate) are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated.
The recoverable amount of an asset or cash-generating unit is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. For the purpose of impairment testing, assets are grouped together into the smallest group of assets that generates cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or groups of assets (the “cash- generating unit”). The goodwill acquired in a business combination, for the purpose of impairment testing, is allocated to cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination.
Annual Report 2009