THINKING, EMOTION, AND SELF-AWARENESS
well enough to respond to them, is exhibiting some degree of intelli- gent behavior.
We can refine our judgment of the intelligence of an artificial being through better understanding of human intelligence and its measurement. Contemporary researchers and educators tend to reject the traditional form of IQ test.They believe that it defines intelligence too stringently by weighing only linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities. Intelligence is now seen as a complex phenomenon with different facets that cannot be summed up by a single IQ number.
One view of this multiplicity comes from the pioneering work of the psychologist Robert Sternberg of Yale University. Sternberg has developed a theory of threefold intelligence that gives weight to ana- lytical, creative, and practical components.Another view comes from Howard Gardner, Hobbs Professor in Cognition and Education at Harvard, who has written extensively about seven diverse types or categories of intelligence.These make a useful grid against which to measure artificial mental functioning.
Gardner begins with two categories that are cornerstones of most definitions of intelligence and adds others that might be less familiar. Paraphrasing Gardner’s definitions, the seven are:
Linguistic: Sensitivity to language, ability to use language to
Logical-mathematical: Capacity for logical analysis and math-
Musical: Skill in recognizing and manipulating musical pat-
Bodily-kinesthetic: Using one’s body or parts of it to solve
Spatial: Recognizing and manipulating the patterns of space
Interpersonal: Understanding the intentions and desires of
other people and so working effectively with them
Intrapersonal: Understanding oneself, creating an internal
working model of oneself and using it to manage one’s own life