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question. He differs from Moravec in his estimate of just how much processing the human brain does, but both men predict that the present rate of chip development will take us there in 20 years or less. Kurzweil puts it dramatically, predicting that by the year 2019, a mere $1,000 will be enough to buy the computing power of the human brain.

Even if this quantitative success is achieved,will it produce a brain that can sustain the full equivalent of a human mind and conscious- ness? To many builders of artificial beings, this is not a key question. The immediate goal of those researchers is the construction of beings that behave in ways that are or appear to be intelligent, emotional, social, and whatever else is useful, without insisting that the beings think like humans or worrying about realemotions within their silicon brains. Faster computation will accomplish that much, if not through evolutionary improvement, then through advances such as molecular-level or quantum computing.

No matter how rapid the computation, beings based on com- puter-style processing might end up thinking likewell, computers. This is not to say they wont be effective; in fact, they might well surpass humans in many ways. If there is to be a next stage, however, where an artificial being acts with full autonomy, shows intrapersonal intelligence, or looks you in the eye and announces Im conscious,we might need to consider qualitatively different methods of con- structing artificial brains.

Still, the first step toward more capable beings is to extend the artificial brains we already have, which are based on programmed digital chips. These brains are showing signs of Howard Gardners multiple intelligences, but except for logical-mathematical intelli- gence, the artificial beings controlled by these brains operate mostly at the level of a young child and have yet to achieve a meaningful degree of intrapersonal intelligence. Nevertheless, there are steps we can take to make these beings more capable and more complete.

One step is the improvement of their bodily-kinesthetic intelli- gence. It took considerable time and work for that kind of intelli- gence to reach its first major success with the construction of the

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