FRANKENSTEIN’S CREATURE OR COMMANDER DATA?
walking ASIMO robot and others.The next kinesthetic goal should be further development of autonomous grasping and manipulation. Some robots perform these tasks at a simple level, but only with pin- cerlike hands. And although some units, such as NASA’s Robonaut, have dexterous fingers-and-thumb hands, they require a human op- erator. Complete hand intelligence would be an important step to- ward more useful beings; also, manual dexterity would give these embodied intelligences a way to explore and shape the world, devel- oping their brains in the process. Such an extension of bodily-kines- thetic ability requires better spatial intelligence and has to incorporate object recognition, another ability that falls under spatial intelligence and is now under development.
Artificial musical intelligence is already here, and not only in the singing and dancing that the Sony QRIO robot performs—some computers are already composing music.Why not add this ability to QRIO? Of the remaining three categories of intelligence, the inter- personal type will also develop as artificial systems become better at distinguishing human emotions as expressed in the face and voice, and responding in humanlike ways. But linguistic intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence—or self awareness—raise special issues.
Linguistic intelligence is exceptionally significant in evaluating artifi- cial beings because of its role in the Turing test. The ability to use language might lie at the pinnacle of human intellectual functions; in fact,some theorists hold it to be essential for our very thoughts.Think- ing and self-awareness can be seen as a process of narration and re- sponse that we carry on inside our minds, a dialogue in an internal voice that is the core of the “I” within each of us.
The Turing test recognizes the importance of language, and so did those pioneers of AI who in the 1960s and 1970s tried to emulate important parts of human intelligence on computers. Linguistic intel- ligence entered in their attempts to make computers communicate in natural human language rather than programming language, and to