computer programs” already exist, but considering the question of whether computers can develop personal intelligences, he comments:
I feel that this is a category error: One cannot have conceptions of persons in the absence of membership in a community with certain values, and it seems an undue stretch to attribute such a status to computers. However, in the future, both humans and computers may chuckle at my shortsight- edness.
James Hogan makes a similar point in Mind Matters. The difference between a human telling him “I feel the same things you do,” and a machine making the same statement, is that,
When I’m talking to a human, who I know is made like me, grew up like me, and has the same kind of accumulated cultural experience as me, I have little hesitation in accepting that the person probably feels things very much they [sic] way I do. I’m less easily persuaded when none of these things apply.
Gardner’s and Hogan’s remarks suggest that the best hope for the realization of truly intelligent, self-aware beings is to design them not to operate at full mental capacity the instant the power is turned on, but rather to learn as they interact with the world. Cynthia Breazeal’s Kismet is an early example of a robot that deliberately follows the model of a child growing with the aid of encouraging adults. Physical interaction is equally important, to explore the world and learn from it.This is why Rodney Brooks thinks that an embodied artificial in- telligence—that is, a synthetic brain controlling a body that deals with physical reality—can develop higher mental functions, an idea that he continues to investigate with the Cog robot.
The idea of an artificial being growing fully into itself is no recent invention. Alan Turing espoused this approach in his seminal 1950 paper“Computing Machinery and Intelligence,” where he wrote,“In- stead of trying to produce a programme to simulate the adult mind, why not rather try to produce one which simulates the child’s? If this were then subjected to an appropriate course of education one would obtain the adult brain,” and goes on to propose how that education should proceed.
There are older antecedents as well. Frankenstein’s Being, you might recall, keenly felt his lack of nurturing and tells Victor: “No