“intelligence” into machines, whether collections of gears or sets of computer chips? How to connect the intangibles that make androids humanlike—or equally important, intelligible to humans and vice- versa—with engineering solutions?
It is difficult, as researchers and engineers know, to turn the quali- tative into the quantitative,to transmute thought, emotions, and moral imperatives into voltages and binary digits. But the virtual history suggests that not all the work needs to be done by the creators; some can be left to the being itself, learning as it goes, changing as it inter- acts with its environment.And so the virtual history gives this impor- tant clue for the researchers: find methods and architectures that are flexible, that can respond and adapt to change. As the next chapter shows, much of the real history of artificial beings represents just that search.