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Because logistic distribution is symmetric about 0, therefore



3.1 Participants

Respondents of this study were 500 Indian Muslims in Penang. A sample size of 500 was selected due to the fact 500 is an appropriate number to conduct multiple regression, in addition to the fact that the research requires some analysis on descriptive statistics The sample population was selected randomly from residential areas, business vicinities and Indian Muslims organizations. Face-to-face interview with the respondents was carried out to collect the needed data. The survey was completed in three months (August October 2009).

3.2 Instruments

The instruments used as a proxy to determine the formation of identity are demographic information, identification with majority group, knowledge about ethnic group and belonging to the ethnic group.

3.2.1 Demographic information

Respondents were asked about their age, gender and education attainment. Education attainment is divided into four categories that are no formal education or have never been to school, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. Additional questions asked about the respondent‟s self-reported ethnicity and their parents‟ ethnicity.

3.2.2 Identification with majority group

Respondents were asked to rate their perception on their identification with the majority group. In this case, the majority group in Malaysia is the Malays. There are three questions in this section asking respondents about how much they have in common with the Malays, how much they know about the Malay‟s culture and how much they feel they are part of the Malay‟s culture. Each question was scored from 1 (none) to 6 (very much). The identification with majority group scale ranges from 3 to 18; the higher the score, the higher is the identification with majority group.

3.2.3 Knowledge about ethnic group

Respondents are asked to rate questions on their knowledge about their ethnic group. The questions include spending time to know more about their ethnic group, have clear information about their ethnic group, understands well the meaning of ethnicity membership and having conversation with other people in the same ethnic group to know more about their ethnic group. Each question was scored from 1


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