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(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The knowledge scale ranges from 4 to 20: the higher the score, the higher is the knowledge about respondents ethnic group.

3.2.4 Belonging to ethnic group

In this section, respondents were asked about their sense of belonging to their ethnic group. This section comprised of eight questions asking about respondents‟ effort to participate in their ethnic organization, being happy to be in the ethnic group, feeling proud of the ethnic group, affect of ethnicity on everyday life, feeling good about cultural and ethnic background, feeling of belonging to the ethnic group, strong attachment to the ethnic group and involvement in ethnicity activity. Each question was scored from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The belonging scale ranges from 8 to 40: the higher the score, the higher is the sense of belonging to the ethnic group.

3.3 Variables

The dependent variable of the equation is

The categories taken into consideration are based on several questions, in which respondents have to choose their ethnic identity. To be qualified as respondent who does not have identity dilemma, i.e. chooses Indian Muslim as his (her) identity, respondent has to choose Indian Muslim in all questions. The questions are:

Question A5: Question C8:

Question D1: Question D3:

Question D4:

Question D5:

My ethnicity is ________________ If given an option to choose ______________________ I want to be known as __________________ If I were to join the Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), I want to be known as ____________ If I were to join the Malaysian Indian Muslim Association (KIMMA), I want to be known as _____________ If I were to join the United Malay National Organization (UMNO), I identity, I will choose an

want to be known as

________________

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