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Scintillation Counters and Photomultiplier Tubes

Different scintillator materials

Plastic scintillator -- good for large areas

Sodium Iodide (NaI)

BGO (Bi4Ge2O12)

Lead Tungstanate (PbWO4)

Focus on plastic scintillator

Composition

Polystyrene (plexiglass)

Doped with small admixture of a fluor

Fluor is organic macro-molecule like

  POPOP: 1,4-Bis-[2-(5-phenyloxazolyl)]-benzene

  C24H16N2O2

Light generated by fluorescence process

One of energy loss mechanisms when charged

         particles pass through matter

Similar to television screen or computer monitor

Quantum mechanical process

Light (photons) emitted isotropically

Emission spectrum from typical scintillator

Relation to visible light spectrum

2. Light generation in scintillators

Inorganic crystals

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