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Scintillation Counters and Photomultiplier Tubes

3. Light Collection

Purpose -- Direct as much generated light as possible to

  the photodetector

Need for making counters light tight

Light transmission within scintillator

Reflections from surfaces, total internal reflection

Transmission through surfaces

Critical angle

Importance of smooth polished surfaces

Use of reflective coverings

         (foil, white paint, white paper, black paper)

Multiple bounces (many!)

Ray-tracing simulation programs

Attenuation of light in scintillator

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