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Scintillation Counters and Photomultiplier Tubes

The Photocathode

Incoming photons expel electrons from the metallic

  surface of the photocathode via the photoelectric effect.

The effect was discovered by

  Heinrich Hertz in 1887 and

  explained by Albert Einstein

  in 1905.

According to Einstein's theory,

  light is composed of  discrete

  particles of energy, or quanta,

  called PHOTONS. When photons with enough energy

  strike the photocathode, they liberate electrons that have

  a kinetic energy equal to the energy of the photons less

  the “work function” (the energy required to free the

  electrons from a particular material).

Einstein received the Nobel Prize for his 1905 paper

  explaining the photoelectric effect. What were the other

  two famous Einstein papers from 1905?

Theory of special relativity

Explanation of Brownian motion

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