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INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY

STUDENT GUIDE

17

The Table lists three Paradigms

1.

Order

2.

Pluralist

3.

Conflict

One Perspective is listed under each Paradigm

Structural-Functionalism

Listed under the Order Paradigm

Primary theorist for this paradigm/perspective: Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

Symbolic-Interaction

Listed under the Pluralist Paradigm

Primary theorists for this paradigm/perspective: Max Weber (1864-1920) and Charles Horton Cooley (1964-1929)

Conflict

Listed under the Conflict Paradigm

Primary theorist for this paradigm/perspective: Karl Marx (1818-1883)

Order/Structural-Functionalism

Society is a set of interrelated parts; cultural consensus exists and leads to social order; natural state of society--balance and harmony (Mooney, Knox, & Schacht, 1997, p. 18).

Views society as a vast organism whose parts are interrelated; social problems are disruptions of this system. Also holds that problems of social institutions produce patterns of deviance or that institutions must address such patterns through strategic social change (Kornblum, Julian, & Smith, 1998, p. 8).

Individuals are socialized by society's institutions; socialization is the process by which social control is exerted; people need society and its institutions (Mooney, Knox, & Schacht, 1997, p. 18).

Pluralist/Symbolic-Interaction

Society is a network of interlocking roles; social order is constructed through interaction as individuals, through shared meaning, make sense out of their social world (Mooney, Knox, & Schacht, 1997, p. 18).

Holds that definitions of deviance or social problems are subjective; separates deviant and nondeviant people not by what they do but by how society reacts to what they do (Kornblum, Julian, & Smith, 1998, p. 8).

Humans are interpretative and interactive; they are constantly changing as their “social beings” emerge and are molded by changing circumstances (Mooney, Knox, & Schacht, 1997, p. 18).

Copyright © 2005 Mount Vernon Nazarene University Adult and Graduate Studies

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