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Faculty Attitudes and Practices Regarding Students with Disabilities: Two Decades After Implementati... - page 22 / 67





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Resources: explanation of sources for accommodations and what the student will do to implement them


Agreement: a question as to the acceptability of accommodations and arrangements and a statement of affirmation


Summary: restatement of accommodations, what the student will do, and what the professor's role of responsibility will be


Closure: general positive statement and expression of appreciation

Procedures for conducting self-advocacy training are explained in detail in the trainer's manual. For example, the lesson plan on stating "resources" explains that the student must describe the campus personnel who can assist in the implementation of accommodations and what the student's responsibility is in that process. Component behaviors are described in detail, followed by procedural steps regarding modeling, participant role-playing, and assessing the lesson's impact. Practice during each lesson involves not only the target behavior for that lesson but all previously learned behaviors as well.

Training Procedures

Instructors presented eight self-advocacy training sessions. Each session lasted 90 minutes, and two sessions were held each week for 4 weeks. The first session included pre-testing and an orientation to self-advocacy. The seven sessions that followed addressed each of the seven self-advocacy lessons. At the end of each session, the trainers completed the evaluation procedures explained in the section to follow. The advocacy training lessons followed a standard format which defined the topic for the lesson, explained the importance of self-advocacy, presented examples of the target behaviors, provided a student modeling the target behaviors on videotape, allowed for practice of the skill with the instructor and in role plays with the other participants, and ended with a summary of the targeted skills. Students received feedback during the training and practiced the target behaviors in role plays, until they were confident in their ability to use the skills in an advocacy setting. Instructors conducted evaluations of skill acquisition immediately following each lesson.

Evaluation Procedures

To evaluate students' acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of self-advocacy skills (the purpose of the study), the instructors administered a series of direct (DT), minimal generalization (MG), extended generalization (EG), and pre/posttests which were audio taped and transcribed. All evaluations consisted of the student advocating for accommodations in specific academic courses. The self-advocacy lessons introduced the use of the 17 target behaviors through seven instructional lessons set in English and algebra classes. Hence, role play assessments referred to as direct test (DT), done with the advocacy instructors twice before training started, immediately after each lesson, and twice after the training program, required the students to request accommodations

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