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Faculty Attitudes and Practices Regarding Students with Disabilities: Two Decades After Implementati... - page 7 / 67

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more written material and use of films," "Read passages of material for tape recording-provide personal recording of material where available," and "I have verbally described diagrams on the board."

2. Assignment accommodations. For example, flexibility in scheduling and format of assignments. "Allowed revisions of papers;" "Made scheduling more flexible;" "Obtained books on tape, allowed rewrites of paper, allowed alternative format for presentation;" "extended due dates, given them more time to complete assigned tasks."

3. Testing/examination accommodations. For example, modifications of the location of exams and of their format. "Reschedule exam date, time, and location;" "Print special copies of exams with extra-large print;" "use of card during exams to keep with scanning line-by-line;" "Braille exams;" "Essay, instead of multiple choice format exam;" "Exams proctored at other sites."

4. Personal attention/assistance. For example, faculty availability and advocacy. "Extra tutoring and written feedback and extra counseling;" "Just listening, acting as mentor, advocate with other faculty," "Individual laboratory sessions;" "Extra office hours," "Before and after class help," "Read to student in my office, review for test one-on-one;" "Provide materials from personal file/collection instead of library resources."

5. Peer-mediated instruction. For example, assistance by other students in class. "A student assigned to assist a person with a disability;" "Peer tutoring;" "Provide TA and proctor;" "Provide learning partner/mentor (another class member);" "Ask another student to make a copy of notes."

6. Physical accommodation/adaptations. Comments were: "Chairs placed where people's faces were visible" (for students with hearing impairment); "Changed location of class to reduce travel time between classes" (for students with an orthopedic impairment); "Mainly the physical setup of the classroom."

Demographic Variables and Faculty Responses

Following are Chi-square tests computed to determine if there were differences in faculty experience, knowledge, attitudes, and needs as determined by select demographic variables.1

Gender. Significantly more male faculty than female faculty reported teaching experience with some groups of students with disabilities, such as those with orthopedic impairments ((21 = 13.87, p = .001) and with visual impairments ((21 = 4.80, p =.028). Also, signifiicantly more male faculty than female faculty expressed a stronger overall willingness to provide accommodations to students with disabilities ((23 = 8.89, p = .030). On the other hand, significantly more female faculty reported having training in the area of disabilities (X23 = 31.73, p = .001) as well as familiarity with Section 504 (X23 = 8.52, p =.036) and ADA (X23 = 14.13, p = .002). More female faculty expressed an interest in participating in future workshops on topics of classroom accommodations (X21 = 5.40, p

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