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Legislative Options After Citizens United v. FEC: Constitutional and Legal Issues

Contents

Background ................................................................................................................................1

Impact of Citizens United on Current Federal Campaign Finance Law...................................2 Legislation and Proposals in Response to Citizens United......................................................2

Increased Disclaimer Requirements.............................................................................................3 Disclosure of Donors to § 501(c) Organizations ..........................................................................4 Shareholder Notification and Approval........................................................................................7 Restrictions on Foreign-Owned Corporations ..............................................................................8

Foreign Corporations vs. Foreign-Owned Corporations under Election Law..........................9 Redefining “Foreign Nationals” to Include Foreign-Owned Corporations ..............................9 First Amendment Rights......................................................................................................12 Vagueness ........................................................................................................................... 13

Conditioning Government Contracts or Grants on Forgoing Right to Political Speech ...............14

“Unconstitutional Conditions” on the Receipt of Federal Funds...........................................14 Government Program Restrictions and “Government Speech”.............................................17 Governmental Interest Promoted by the Legislation; Least Restrictive Means of

Accomplishing Objective ................................................................................................. 18 Other Government Interests or Narrower Tailoring Sufficient to Justify Restrictions

Involving Government Contractors ..................................................................................20

Taxation of Corporate Campaign-Related Expenditures.............................................................22 Public Financing For Congressional Campaigns ........................................................................26 Constitutional Amendment ........................................................................................................ 27

Contacts

Author Contact Information ......................................................................................................28

Congressional Research Service

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