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from child care fees was $40,000 before taxes and expenses, but median net income was only $16,000. The net income of group family day care providers was less than h a l f o f t h e m e d i a n i n c o m e f o r w o m e n w o r k i n g f u l l - t i m e , y e a r - r o u n d i n N e w Y o r k S t a t e i n

2007 ($40,135)23,24

. Fourteen percent of group family day care providers indicated that

they have another job in addition to their group family day care business.

Similar to family day care providers, very few group family day care providers obtain

health

insurance

through

their

day

care

business

(9%).

Approximately

one

quarter

(26%) of providers have no health insurance. Approximately half care providers reported obtaining health insurance through another

of group family day family member's job

(44%)

or

a

second

job

(4%).

About

one-fifth

of

providers

(21%)

were

enrolled

in

Family

Health income

Plus (a public health insurance or resources that are low, but are

program too high

for adults aged 19 to to qualify for Medicaid).

64

who

have

Recommendations for Recruitment and Retention of the Child Care Workforce

Recruiting and retaining development of young

a high-quality child care workforce are critical to

children.

Research

consistently

demonstrates

the healthy that young

children learn more with teachers and adults who have the foster social, emotional, cognitive, and physical growth and to

education and training to create a healthy and safe

learning environment.25 child care is to create a childhood programs.

Thus, highly

one key to creating better outcomes for young children in qualified workforce with the ability to provide quality early

Continuity of care is also of major importance to positive child outcomes. Research has shown that infants with secure attachment relationships with their care providers are more likely to play, explore, and interact with adults in their child care setting. A study of children 6- to 30-months-old in child care centers found that when the children experienced fewer changes in those who cared for them in a day and longer stretches with their primary child care provider, they were less likely to exhibit behavior problems in child care. More changes in child care center or family child care providers in the earliest years have been associated with less outgoing and more aggressive behaviors among four- and five-year-old children.26 Therefore, a second key to creating better outcomes for young children in child care is to decrease staff turnover, which both maintains continuity of care for individual children and results in a workforce with a greater depth of experience.

23 2007 American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, table B1936 Median income in the past 12 months (in 2007 inflation adjusted dollars) by sex by work experience in past 12 months for population 15 years and over and with income.

24 Ninety-five percent of group family day care providers who participated in The Early Care and Education Workforce Study. 2008. Mills Consulting Group, Inc were women.

25 See J. Shonkoff and D. Phillips, eds, From Neurons to Neighborhoods: the Science of Early Childhood Development, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2002, for an overview of the latest research on the need for quality early childhood programs that support healthy development. See also N. Halfon, E. Shulman and M. Hochstein, Brain Development in Early Childhood: Building Community Systems for Young Children. UCLA: Center for Healthier Children, Families and Communities, August 2001 for an overview of the need to systematically address the needs of the whole child.

26 Rachel Schumaher and Elizabeth Hoffmann, Continuity of Care: Charting Progress for Babies in Child Care Research-Based Rationale, August 2008.

26

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