Hydraulic Civilization cont.
The same, or similar, organization and control
continues to be needed to maintain the works and adjudicate disputes over water rights
Farmers become dependent upon the artificial
water supply or security from flooding
so the leaders who control the works (and control the legitimate force needed to build and maintain them) come to have real coercive power over the farmers
The leaders use their labor-mobilizing power to
construct non-hydraulic works such as temples, palaces, roads, etc., and eventually to conduct other activities such as manufacturing trade goods, etc.
This process leads to very powerful leaders
AN ARAB REALM ?
z Relates to language as a cultural feature of this realm
z Arabic is the dominant language in 16 States of the realm.
z In Non-Arab States, indigenous languages dominate.
Turkey - Turkish
Iran - Farsi
Israel - Hebrew
Niger - French
z MUHAMMED (571- 632 AD) z FIVE PILLARS OF FAITH
REPEATED EXPRESSIONS OF CREED
MONTH OF DAYTIME FASTING
PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA
z SUNNIS VS SHI’ITES
WHERE ARE THE MUSLIMS ?
Millions 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
Indonesia India Pakistan Bangladesh Turkey Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia