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Hydraulic Civilization cont.

  • The same, or similar, organization and control

continues to be needed to maintain the works and adjudicate disputes over water rights

  • Farmers become dependent upon the artificial

water supply or security from flooding

    • so the leaders who control the works (and control the legitimate force needed to build and maintain them) come to have real coercive power over the farmers

  • The leaders use their labor-mobilizing power to

construct non-hydraulic works such as temples, palaces, roads, etc., and eventually to conduct other activities such as manufacturing trade goods, etc.

  • This process leads to very powerful leaders

Page 4

AN ARAB REALM ?

z Relates to language as a cultural feature of this realm

z Arabic is the dominant language in 16 States of the realm.

z In Non-Arab States, indigenous languages dominate.

  • -

    Turkey - Turkish

  • -

    Iran - Farsi

  • -

    Israel - Hebrew

  • -

    Niger - French

MUSLIM WORLD?

z MUHAMMED (571- 632 AD) z FIVE PILLARS OF FAITH

  • REPEATED EXPRESSIONS OF CREED

  • FREQUENT PRAYER

  • MONTH OF DAYTIME FASTING

  • ALMS-GIVING

  • PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA

z SUNNIS VS SHI’ITES

WHERE ARE THE MUSLIMS ?

Millions 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

168.3

128.8

125

104

62 61.7

57.1

18.2

Indonesia India Pakistan Bangladesh Turkey Iran Egypt Saudi Arabia

  • #

    of

Muslims

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